Ash handling of thermal power plants, chemicals: Creating a green building material market
According to statistics of the Department of Construction Materials (Ministry of Construction), there are currently 19 thermal power plants, in addition to factories producing chemicals, fertilizers and steel. Every year, those plants in the operation process emit about 11 million tons of ash, 5 million tons of bottom slag and about 4 million tons of gypsum residue. It can be seen that emissions have become a pressing issue for environmental pollution, as well as other consequences.
Emissions monitoring remains low
Regarding the situation of emission treatment, Mr. Le Van Toi, Director of the Department of Construction Materials (Construction Material) said that in recent years, factories have often handled spontaneously, not having high awareness in treatment of emissions. Currently, ash and plaster are properly used as waste, meaning that when someone comes to buy, those factories sell, or give away, or even put them in a dump yard. In the environmental protection regulations, when coal-fired thermoelectric plants release sulfur gas, they will have to degass the sulfur until it is non-toxic. The gas released into the environment is no longer toxic, but the residue has calcium carbonate and sulfate salts – called gypsum, which is only used properly as waste.
Regarding the supervision of the Ministries, before 2014 this is still at a low, not aggressive level, in the future, there will be many coal-fired thermal power plants and many fertilizer production facilities, so according to Planning orientations for thermal power plants as well as production facilities, it is estimated that by 2020, emission plants may generate 30-40 million tons of waste a year. To be able to contain that waste place requires about 600 thousand hectares, that is, for 4 years, the area of an average commune is lost.
Facing that situation, on September 23, 2014, the Prime Minister decided to issue Decision 1696 on some solutions for handling ash, slag and gypsum at thermal and chemical plants. The goal of these solutions is to treat wastes up to technical standards standards for use as raw materials for construction materials production, as well as for use in construction. Reduce the area of landfill. And saving mineral resources in the production of construction materials.
There is a legal corridor
According to experts, to solve the root of waste treatment of thermal power plants, chemicals, fertilizer, become construction materials or tools for construction, need to column the responsibilities of the investors of the plants. coal-fired thermoelectricity, chemical fertilizer factory. Because before, they only pay attention to the product, while the waste of the factory has not been paid enough attention. Facing that situation, in the Decision (QD) 1696, the column of responsibility has to be classified, preliminary processed to ensure that it is qualified for use as construction materials and materials for production of construction materials. The sanction of Decision 1696 is only for a newly invested thermal power plant to use the waste dump for 2 years. As for the previous factories, from now to 2020, they will have to review the area of waste landfill use and will only be used for 2 years. This is a strong and effective measure, because if the landfill is full, the factory cannot produce it but must stop production to treat the waste.
Toi said that when this Decision takes effect, not only ministries, branches and localities but also businesses must focus on implementing it. Currently, each factory and each facility has a certain specific condition, for example, a plant near the road will be used more conveniently, such as Pha Lai and Ninh Binh plants have been treated almost no longer. waste. Or Cao Ngan factory, although the location is far away, but when the Decision 1696 comes into effect, it has actively signed a contract with the waste disposal units, so up to now there are no more waste. Or Nghi Son thermal power plant, which has addressed the direction since the plant came into operation. A number of other factories still waste now have the treatment to consume that ash.
On the side of specialized ministries such as Construction, Industry and Trade, there has been a good involvement, direction and support of businesses in this issue, although there are still some difficulties because some investors have not take adequate forms to perform their obligations thoroughly in handling gypsum ash; but in the near future will force those units to thoroughly handle. If the unit itself cannot implement, it must pay money to hire another unit to handle.
By 2020: At least 60% of ash and slag waste will be used as construction materials
Also according to Mr. Toi, the Government has issued the Decree on construction materials management – Decree 24a, dated 4/5/2016, regulations for environmentally-friendly construction materials, saving natural resources are prescribed. In Chapter 5 of the Decree, all such production will be included in the form of investment incentives in the Investment Law. In addition, the program of Developing unburnt construction materials of the Government was issued in 2010, up to now, localities, ministries and people have approached, implemented, and had good results. In order to support businesses using this material, it is necessary to thoroughly grasp Decree 24a on management of construction materials; continue to implement well the program of developing unburnt construction materials, especially the Prime Minister’s instruction to increase the use of construction materials.
Also according to Mr. Toi, the Government has issued the Decree on construction materials management – Decree 24a, dated 4/5/2016, regulations for environmentally-friendly construction materials, saving natural resources are prescribed. In Chapter 5 of the Decree, all such production will be included in the form of investment incentives in the Investment Law. In addition, the program of Developing unburnt construction materials of the Government was issued in 2010, up to now, localities, ministries and people have approached, implemented, and had good results. In order to support businesses using this material, it is necessary to thoroughly grasp Decree 24a on management of construction materials; continue to well implement the program of developing unburnt construction materials, especially the Prime Minister’s instruction to increase the use of unburnt construction materials and restrict the use of baked clay bricks. The Ministry of Construction is also directing to review and supplement standards and regulations on the treatment and use of gypsum waste of thermal power plants, chemical fertilizer plants, to make raw materials for production of construction materials, such as additives for cement, mortar concrete, used in transportation, reinforcing the foundation, … The Ministry of Construction will formulate and effectively implement the key scientific program on handling ash and plaster in the Thermal power plants, chemical fertilizer plants. The goal is to use at least 60% of gypsum ash waste from those production facilities by 2020.